BSA Environmental Services has the capabilities to identify algal species and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria at the genetic level. By implementing DNA isolation protocols for plants and algae BSA is able to produce a pure product for DNA sequencing; this allows for proper identification down to an algal species. Using scientifically proven techniques BSA is able to determine if cyanobacteria has the potential to produce toxins (Microcystin, Cylindrospermopsin, Anatoxin-a) by identifying whether the toxin producing gene is present.


  • Simple sequencing (e.g., 16S gene for species identification) - Ideal for identifying the taxon responsible for cyano blooms, this will sequence the entire 16S gene/ITS region for species level identification.

  • qPCR sequencing - Method for assessing more of a mixed cyanobacterial community, this will provide the dominant ribotypes present in a more heterogeneous sample (e.g., co-dominance by 2-3 taxa, such as Microcystis, Dolichospermum and Aphanizomenon)

  • Community-level (e.g., next-gen sequencing) - The most exhaustive analysis, this will provide information about the total algal community.  We will use three different markers: the 16S (for cyanobacteria), the rbcL (for diatoms) and UPA (the plastid marker useful for the remaining freshwater algal lineages, such as greens).